trace function calls

An example of creating logs from NtOpenFile

Creating logs from different APIs and functions is one of the essential tasks in reverse engineering and program or malware analysis. HyperDbg is optimized to be fast and accurate for this case.

Assume that we want to create a log from all the files that a process wants to open. For this case, we want to hook nt!NtOpenFile.

Note that there are other functions to get the handle from files, e.g., nt!NtCreateFile but for this example, we only use nt!NtOpenFile. You can create your scripts for other functions too.

From the MSDN, NtOpenFile is defined like this:

__kernel_entry NTSYSCALLAPI NTSTATUS NtOpenFile(
  PHANDLE            FileHandle,
  ACCESS_MASK        DesiredAccess,
  POBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes,
  PIO_STATUS_BLOCK   IoStatusBlock,
  ULONG              ShareAccess,
  ULONG              OpenOptions

As you might know, there is no pointer to the file name in the above prototype. In fact, the file name is embedded into the ObjectAttributes parameter to this function.

If you want to see how OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES structure is defined, you can see this link from MSDN.

typedef struct _OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES {
  ULONG           Length;
  HANDLE          RootDirectory;
  ULONG           Attributes;
  PVOID           SecurityDescriptor;
  PVOID           SecurityQualityOfService;

From the relative-address point of view, this function is stored in the memory like this:

   +0x000 Length           : Uint4B
   +0x008 RootDirectory    : Ptr64 Void
   +0x010 ObjectName       : Ptr64 _UNICODE_STRING
   +0x018 Attributes       : Uint4B
   +0x020 SecurityDescriptor : Ptr64 Void
   +0x028 SecurityQualityOfService : Ptr64 Void

We can see that there is a UNICODE_STRING field named ObjectName. This is the name of the object that we're trying to open using NtOpenFile. This structure is also used in NtCreateFile.

If we look at the UNICODE_STRING structure. It's defined like this:

typedef struct _UNICODE_STRING {
  USHORT Length;
  USHORT MaximumLength;
  PWSTR  Buffer;

And the compiler saves it like this:

   +0x000 Length           : Uint2B
   +0x002 MaximumLength    : Uint2B
   +0x008 Buffer           : Ptr64 Wchar

Ok, we have all the offsets that we want to create a log from the file names.

First, the ObjectAttributes parameter is passed as the 3rd parameter to the function, and as the calling convention is Windows fastcall (rcx, rdx, r8, r9, stack), our target parameter is located at the r8 register.

In our case, r8 is a pointer to the OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES, and if we add 0x10 to it, we'll reach the ObjectName field of this structure.

ObjectName is a pointer to the UNICODE_STRING, so we'll dereference this pointer using the poi operator to reach the top of the UNICODE_STRING.

In the UNICODE_STRING, we'll add 0x8 to get the Buffer filed of this structure, and now we dereference it again to get the pointer where the file name string is located.

We'll put a breakpoint on this function and use print and dc commands to verify our computation.

0: kHyperDbg> bp nt!NtOpenFile

0: kHyperDbg> g
debuggee is running...
breakpoint 0x1 hit
fffff801`6366cc40    4C 8B DC                            mov r11, rsp

3: kHyperDbg> print dq(poi(r8 + 10) + 0x8)

3: kHyperDbg> dc fffff801637c11f0
fffff801`637c11f0  0044005C 00760065 00630069 005C0065  \.D.e.v.i.c.e.\.
fffff801`637c1200  006F004D 006E0075 00500074 0069006F  M.o.u.n.t.P.o.i.
fffff801`637c1210  0074006E 0061004D 0061006E 00650067  n.t.M.a.n.a.g.e.
fffff801`637c1220  00000072 CCCCCCCC CCCCCCCC CCCCCCCC  r...............
fffff801`637c1230  004B005C 00720065 0065006E 004F006C  \.K.e.r.n.e.l.O.
fffff801`637c1240  006A0062 00630065 00730074 004C005C  b.j.e.c.t.s.\.L.
fffff801`637c1250  0077006F 006F004E 0050006E 00670061  o.w.N.o.n.P.a.g.
fffff801`637c1260  00640065 006F0050 006C006F 006F0043  e.d.P.o.o.l.C.o.

You can clearly see that the computed address contains the object name.

Now, we'll show it using printf function with %ws as the identifier to show the buffer as a unicode string.

3: kHyperDbg> ? printf("%ws\n", dq(poi(r8 + 10) + 0x8));

Next, we clear all the breakpoints using the bc command.

3: kHyperDbg> bc all

At last, we set a hook to this function using !epthook command and in the script payload of the command, we use our above statement.

!epthook nt!NtOpenFile script {
	printf("%ws\n", dq(poi(r8 + 10) + 0x8));

You can see the results of how it displays every object's name when you continue the debuggee.

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