!exception (hook first 32 entries of IDT)
Description of the '!exception' command in HyperDbg.

Command

!exception

Syntax

!exception [IdtIndex (hex)] [pid ProcessId (hex)] [core CoreId (hex)] [imm IsImmediate (yesno)] [buffer PreAllocatedBuffer (hex)] [script { Script (string) }] [condition { Condition (hex) }] [code { Code (hex) }]

Description

Triggers when the debugging machine encounters an exception (faults, traps, aborts) or NMI or interrupt. This command applies to only the first 32 entries of IDT (Interrupt Descriptor Table). If you need to hook entries between 32 to 255 of IDT, you should use !interrupt instead.
When you enable this event, only your specific entry will be hooked, so this command won't trigger on all exceptions/interrupts; thus, it won't make your computer slow but on the other hand, by using !interrupt command, if you just need one of the entries; still, all entries between 32 to 255 should be emulated by HyperDbg, so it's substantially slower.

Parameters

[IdtIndex (hex)]
Trigger in the case of receiving an interrupt or exception. The value should be between 0x0 to 0x1f (starting from zero). If you don't specify this parameter, it will be triggered for all first 32 exceptions/interrupts.
[pid ProcessId (hex)] (optional)
Optional value to trigger the event in just a specific process. Add pid xx to your command; thus, the command will be executed if the process id is equal to xx. If you don't specify this option, then by default, you receive events on all processes.
Still, in the case of user-mode debugging, HyperDbg will apply it only to the current active debugging process (not all the processes). In that case, you can specify pid all to intercept events from the entire system.
[core CoreId (hex)] (optional)
Optional value to trigger the event in just a specific core. Add core xx to your command thus command will be executed if core id is equal to xx. If you don't specify this option, then by default, you receive events on all cores.
[imm IsImmediate (yesno)] (optional)
Optional value in which yes means the results (printed texts in scripts) should be delivered immediately to the debugger. no means that the results can be accumulated and delivered as a couple of messages when the buffer is full; thus, it's substantially faster, but it's not real-time. By default, this value is set to yes.
[buffer PreAllocatedBuffer (hex)] (optional)
Optional value which reserves a safe pre-allocated buffer to be accessed within the event codes.
[script { Script (string) }] (optional)
A HyperDbg script will be executed each time the event is triggered.
[condition { Condition (hex) }] (optional)
Optional hex assembly codes which check for conditions in assembly.
[code { Code (hex) }] (optional)
Optional hex assembly codes will be executed each time the event is triggered.

Context

As the Context ($context pseudo-register in the event's script, r8 in custom code, and rdx in condition code register) to the event trigger, HyperDbg sends vector or IDT index of the exception or interrupt.

Debugger

This event supports three debugging mechanisms.
  • Break
  • Script
  • Custom Code
Please read "How to create a condition?" if you need a conditional event, a conditional event can be used in all "Break", "Script", and "Custom Code".

Break

Imagine we want to break on all first 32 exceptions and interrupts.
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HyperDbg> !exception
Copied!
If we want to break on page-faults.
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HyperDbg> !exception 0xe
Copied!
If we want to break on division-by-zero on core 1 and process id 0x490.
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HyperDbg> !exception 0x0 core 1 pid 490
Copied!

Script

Using the following command, you can use HyperDbg's Script Engine. You should replace the string between braces (HyperDbg Script Here) with your script. You can find script examples here.
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HyperDbg> !exception 0xe script { HyperDbg Script Here }
Copied!
The above command when messages don't need to be delivered immediately.
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HyperDbg> !exception 0xe script { HyperDbg Script Here } imm no
Copied!
Script (From File)
If you saved your script into a file then you can add file: instead of a script and append the file path to it. For example, the following examples show how you can run a script from file:c:\users\sina\desktop\script.txt.
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HyperDbg> !exception 0xe script {file:c:\users\sina\desktop\script.txt}
Copied!
You can use event forwarding to forward the event monitoring results from this event and other events to an external source, e.g., File, NamedPipe, or TCP Socket. This way, you can use HyperDbg as a monitoring tool and gather your target system's behavior and use it later or analyze it on other systems.

Custom Code

Please read "How to create an action?" to get an idea about how to run the custom buffer code in HyperDbg.
Your custom code will be executed in vmx-root mode. Take a look at this topic for more information. Running code in vmx-root is considered "unsafe".
Run Custom Code (Unconditional)
Monitoring occurrence of first 32 exceptions and interrupts and run 3 nops whenever the event is triggered. Take a look at Run Custom Code for more information.
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HyperDbg> !exception code {90 90 90}
Copied!
Run Custom Code (Conditional)
Monitoring occurrence of first 32 exceptions and interrupts and run 3 nops whenever the event condition is triggered and run 3 nops whenever the event is triggered. Take a look at Run Custom Code and how to create a condition for more information.
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HyperDbg> !exception code {90 90 90} condition {90 90 90}
Copied!
Keep in mind that a conditional event can be used in Breaking to Debugger and Running Script too.

IOCTL

This command uses the same method to send IOCTL for regular events.
As EventType use EXCEPTION_OCCURRED and send the special entry between 0x0 to 0x1f (if any) if you want to monitor just a special exception or interrupt in OptionalParam1 in DEBUGGER_GENERAL_EVENT_DETAIL.

Design

Take a look at "Design of !exception & !interrupt" to see how it works.

Remarks

Emulating page-fault (entry 0xe) is treated differently in HyperDbg. Take a look here for more information.
If the debugger breaks due to the triggering !exception event, the instrumentation stepping command won't re-inject the event into the debuggee. In other words, the 'i' command will continue the normal execution as if the debuggee never created such an EXCEPTION.
This command will re-inject the event to the debuggee after triggering the event (not before it).
This is an event command, but in the current version of HyperDbg (in Debugger Mode), this command will continue the debuggee for some time; however, you can use this trick to make sure you won't lose any event.

Requirements

None