Variables & Assignments
Description of variables and assignments

Registers Assignment

By using a simple lvalue register assignment, the user is able to change the value of registers.
syntax
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@register = expression;
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Example 1
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@rax = 0x55;
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Example 2
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@r15 = poi(@rcx);
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Example 3
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if ( @rcx == 0x55) {
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@rcx = @rdx + @rax + 12;
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}
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Local Variables Assignment

In HyperDbg's script engine, all the variables are defined without Type, and all of them are considered unsigned 64-bit integers. You can save results of functions and boolean expressions or results of mathematical calculations alongside 64-bit addresses to the variables.
The variables can be used as an input to other functions or might be used in conditional statements or loops.
The following example shows the assigning 0 to a variable named my_variable.
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my_variable = 0;
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You can also assign registers or pseudo-registers to the variables.
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my_variable = $proc + 0x10;
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my_variable = @rax - @rcx + 8;
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Also, you can assign the results of functions to the variables.
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my_variable = check_address(@rcx);
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Local variables won't be changed in the case of a core's context, which means you can save the variable and expect to reread it next time you access the variable from the same core. But of course, the local variables are not available in other cores.

Global Variables Assignment

Like local variables, all global variables are defined without type, and all of them are considered unsigned 64-bit integers.
The variables can be used as an input to other functions or might be used in conditional statements or loops.
You can also use global variables as volatile variables to the spinlocks or interlocked functions.
The difference between local variables and global variables is that the global variables start with a . DOT.
The following example shows the assigning 0 to a global variable named .my_variable.
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.my_variable = 0;
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You can also assign registers or pseudo-registers to the global variables.
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.my_variable = $proc + 0x10;
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.my_variable = @rax - @rcx + 8;
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Also, you can assign the results of functions to the global variables.
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.my_variable = check_address(@rcx);
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Using global variables on multi-core systems

You should not write to a global variable simultaneously from different cores. It's clear that other cores might trigger the same event and use the global variable or modify that variable.
To solve this problem, you can use spinlock functions. If you want to perform mathematical calculations on different global variables, you should use interlocked functions instead of performing them using regular math operators.
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//
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// First, we should create a separate global variable as the lock
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//
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spinlock_lock(.my_global_variable_lock);
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//
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// Now, it's safe to change the global variable in a multi-core
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// environment
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//
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.my_global_var = 0x1234;
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//
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// At last, we should release the lock
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//
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spinlock_unlock(.my_global_variable_lock);
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As another example, assume that we want to count the number of times a function is called. For this purpose, we need a global variable to hold this number. You can safely use interlocked_increment for this purpose, and for other mathematical operations or atomic exchange operations, you can use other interlocked functions.
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interlocked_increment(.my_global_counter);
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If you are running HyperDbg on a single-core machine, there is no need to use a spinlock or use interlocked functions for calculations; you can directly modify them without any problem.
Both of the global variables and the local variables are initialized with NULL.

Modify Memory

Modifying memory is possible using 'eb, ed, eq' functions.
eb modifies a single byte.
ed modifies a dwrod.
eq modifies a qword value.
The following code edits memory (quad-word) at fffff8031d44fde0 and change it to 0x12345678deadbeef.
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IsEditApplied = eq(fffff8031d44fde0, 0x12345678deadbeef);
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The following code changes a byte to 0x90 at the location that the @rcx register is pointing to, then adds 0x8 to it.
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IsEditApplied = eb(poi(@rcx)+8, 0x90);
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Last modified 1mo ago